Maybe not everyone but a lot of developers use npm for projects. Npm is so useful feature for programmers. So how to install npm on your machine? How to create package.json file? How to install packages and so much more.
Table of contents
- Install Node.js
- Create a project folder
- Launch npm
- Install npm packages
- Terminal command keys
- npm i events
Step 1. Install Node.js
If you don’t have Node.js on you computer install Node.js from the official website. Why we need Node.js? It’s simple. We need Node.js because npm is a separate project from Node.js. Simply, without Node.js you can’t get npm in your project.
If you already have a Node.js on your computer check the version:
So check the npm version to verify you have the latest version:
Step 2. Create a project folder
If you don’t have a project folder at this step it’s time to create it. In the next steps you will work with your project folder. You can use terminal to create a folder. All you need to do is enter this command in your terminal:
To verify that you created a folder run this:
Also, you can use the basic way to create a folder.
Maybe in the future I’ll write an article about terminal and how it can save your time just ‘running’ in computer directories.
Step 3. Launch npm
If you start you project from scratch and don’t have a package.json file run this command in your project:
npm init --yes
It will create a basic package.json file in your project folder:
Step 4. Install npm packages
After we installed npm let’s install some packages. All dependencies install by command
npm install or in a short way
npm i eslint --save-dev --save-exact
We installed eslint in our project. But what the weird words with dashes?
Step 5. Terminal command keys
The most terminal commands have additional settings. This settings called command keys.
--save-exact are the specifying commands. The are need it to clarify how to install the package.
--save-dev key will install the package in
devDependencies section in a
package.json file. If you will forget this key your package will be installed in
dependencies section. It’s no problem but there is a logical split:
devDependencies packages is need it for development,
dependencies packages is need it for app working.
--save-exact key is saying to install exact version of the package (usually more newer). If you will forget this key your package will be install with
^ sign. That means “every version from and higher”. It’s okay, but if several developer will be working on your project, they in 90% will have a different version of packages. That will be the issue.
Some keys have a short way, one hyphen and initial letter. For example,
-D is the same that
-E the same that
npm i eslint -D -E
The pros of short way is combining them and
-D -Ewill be
npm i eslint -DE
So the order is not important. You can type
Step 6. npm i events
After we installed a first package in our project we can see some events:
package-lock.json will be formatted in your project directory. This file contains version history of our dependencies. If you already have dependencies in your project the
package-lock.jsonfile will be updated. You have to commit it in your GitHub repository.
There will be created a new block in your
package.json file called
There will be created a new folder called
node_modules. You don’t have to commit it. Why? Because all packages are stored in
package.json file and after you open your project in a new computer or if you pull the repository from GitHub all you will need to do is install your packages by run
npm i in terminal. All your packages will be installed instantly. That’s AWESOME!
Package.json have a special section called
scripts. In this section you can set different scripts for launching.
In this example we have lint script that will launch eslint in our project:
npm run lint
In this article we learned how to start npm from scratch in our future projects. And we are understood how to install packages, how to setting them up, what we need to commit and what is better to add in .gitignore file. Thank you for reading this article.